English Grammar

The Basics of English Language


Present Perfect Tense

 

It is used to expressed an action which happened or completed in past but usually the action which happened or completed at a short time before now (near past) not a very long time before now. Specific time such as two years ago, last week or that day is usually not used in the sentences of in this tense. It means that this tense expresses the action whose time when it happened, is not exactly specified but it sounds to refer to some action that happened or completed in near past.


Rules: Auxiliary verb “has or have” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

 

                                Structure of Sentence

Positive Sentence
         • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + Subject
         • Subject + has/have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject

If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “has” is used after subject in sentence.
If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “have” is used after subject in sentence.

Examples

       I have eaten meal
       She has learnt a lesson

 

Negative Sentence
        • Subject + Auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle) + Subject
        • Subject + has/have + NOT + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject

Rules for using auxiliary verb “has or have” in negative sentence are same as mentioned above.

Examples

      I have not eaten meal.
      She has not learnt a lesson.

 

Interrogative Sentences
         • Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb (past participle) + Subject
         • Has/have + Subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject

Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “has”.
If subject is “You, They or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “have”.

Examples

      Have I eaten meal?
      Has she learnt a lesson?

 

More Examples.

Positive Sentences
          They have gone to school.
          They have bought a new car.
          I have started a job
          It has rained.
          The guests have arrived
          John has left for home.
          You have told a lie.

Negative Sentences
        They have not gone to school.
        They have not bought a new car.
        I have not started a job
        It has not rained.
        The guests have not arrived.
        John has not left for home.
        You have not told a lie.

Negative Sentences                                                        
       Have they gone to school?
       Have they bought a new car?
       Have I started a job?
       Has it rained?
       Have the guests arrived?
       Has John left for home?
       Have you told a lie?

 

RELEVANT LINKS

  1. Tenses
  2. Present Simple Tense
  3. Present Continuous Tense
  4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
  5. Past Simple Tense
  6. Past Continuous Tense
  7. Past Perfect Tense
  8. Past Perfect Continuous
  9. Future Simple Tense
  10. Future Continuous Tense
  11. Future Perfect Tense
  12. Future Perfect Continuous