English Grammar

The Basics of English Language


Reflexive Pronoun, Relative Pronoun, Demonstrative Pronoun

 

Reflexive Pronoun.

 

Reflexive pronoun describes noun when subject’s action affects the subject itself.
e.g himself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves, itself  are reflexive pronouns.

 

Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an interaction between the subject and an object.

 

Namber

Person

Subject

Reflive Pronoun

Singular 1st Person I Myself
2nd Person You Yourself
3rd Person He, she, it Himself, Herself, Itself
Plural 1st Person We Ourselves
2nd Person You Yourselves
3rd Person They Themselves

Examples.
        I looked at myself in the mirror.
        You should think about yourself.
        They prepared themselves for completion.
        She pleases herself by think that she will win the prize.
        He bought a car for himself.
        He locked himself in the room.
        He who loves only himself is a selfish.

 

Note: Reflexive noun can also be used to give more emphasis on subject or object. If a reflexive pronoun is used to give more emphasis on a subject or an object, it is called “Intensive Pronoun”. Usage and function of intensive pronoun are different from that of reflexive pronoun.

 

For example, she herself started to think about herself.


In the above sentence the first “herself” is used as intensive pronoun while the second “herself” is used as reflexive pronoun.
See the following examples of intensive pronouns.

 

Examples. (Intensive Pronouns)
I did it myself. OR. I myself did it.
She herself washed the clothes.
He himself decided to go to New York.
She herself told me.

 

                                               Reciprocal Pronouns.
Reciprocal Pronouns are used when each of two or more subjects reciprocate to the other.
or
Reciprocal pronouns are used when two subjects act in same way towards each other, or, more subjects act in same way to one another.

For example,  A loves B and B love A. we can say that A and B loves each other.

There are two reciprocal pronouns

  • Each other
  • One another.


Examples.
        John and Marry are talking to each other.
        The students gave cards to one another.
        The people helped one another in hospital.
        Two boys were pushing each other.
        The car and the bus collided with each other.
        The students in the class greeted one another.

 

Relative Pronouns.


Relative Pronoun describes a noun which is mentioned before and more information is to be given about it.
Or
Relative pronoun is a pronoun which joins relative clauses and relative sentences.

For example, It is the person, who helped her.
In this sentence the word “who” is a relative pronoun which refers to the noun (the person) which is already mentioned in beginning of sentence (It is the person) and more information (he helped her) is given after using a relative pronoun (who) for the noun (the person).
Similarly, in above sentence the pronoun “who” joins two clauses which are “it is the person” and “who helped her”.   

 

Examples. The most commonly used five relative pronouns are, who, whom, whose, which, that.
“Who” is for subject and “whom” is used for object. “who” and “whom” are used for people. “Whose” is used to show possession and can be used for both people and things. “Which” is used for things. “That” is used for people and things.

 

Examples.
        It is the girl who got first position in class.
        Adjective is a word that modifies noun.
        The man whom I met yesterday is a nice person.
        It is the planning that makes succeed.
        The boy who is laughing is my friend.
        It is the boy whose father is doctor.
        The car which I like is red.

 

Demonstrative Pronouns.


Demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that points to a thing or things.
e.g. this, that, these, those, none, neither

These pronouns point to thing or things in short distance/time or long distance/time.

Short distance or time: This, these.
Long distance or time: That, those.

Demonstrative pronouns “this and that” are used for singular thing while “these or those” are used for plural things.

 

Examples
          This is black.
          That is heavy.
          Can you see these?
          Do you like this?
          John brought these.
          Those look attractive.
          Have you tried this.

 

RELEVANT LINKS

  1. Pronoun, Types of Pronoun
  2. Personal Pronoun, Possessive Pronoun,